What is Insider threat?

Insider threat is the risk that an insider will use their authorised access to an organisation or their familiarity with internal controls to cause harm from the inside.

A Comprehensive Definition of Insider Threat

An insider threat represents a multifaceted and critical risk within any organization, as it stems from individuals with authorized access to the organisation's systems or information. Unlike external threats, an insider threat has unique characteristics that allow individuals from within the organisation to cause harm, whether intentionally or unintentionally.

Categories of Insider Threats

Insider threats encompass various behaviors and actions, each carrying its own set of risks and challenges. These categories include:

  • Sabotage: Deliberate acts aimed at damaging or obstructing organizational assets, operations, or goals.
  • Espionage: Unauthorized gathering or leaking of sensitive, proprietary, or national security information for personal gain or to benefit a foreign entity.
  • Undisclosed Information: Sharing of confidential or protected information without proper authorization, possibly leading to legal ramifications.
  • Workplace Violence: Physical or emotional harm caused by an employee or associate within the organizational environment.
  • Fraud: Deceptive practices or misrepresentation to gain an unfair or dishonest advantage.
  • Insider Trading: Illegal trading of stocks or other securities based on confidential information.
  • Data Theft: Unauthorized access, copying, or transmission of sensitive data, impacting all sectors and potentially causing financial or reputational damage.
Average Cost of An Insider Threat Incident

Why are insider threats increasing?

There are four main factors that have led to an increase in insider threat. That is the increasing digitalisation, advances in cloud technology, the increase in remote working and lastly the geo-political situations, as tensions between strong nation-states are leading some nations to use more aggressive methods in obtaining organisations’ secrets.

An Insider Threat can occur in numerous ways...

In most cases, this act is committed by technically savvy employees. The insider threat has the skills and experience to harm an organisation and erase their tracks. In cases involving termination, insider saboteurs commonly act within thirty days of being terminated and the lack of physical and electronic controls often facilitates it. This, alongside improper off-boarding, can increase the chances of insider threat.

The different types of Insider Threat

Insider threats, according to the CISA, encompass a wide range of security risks originating from within an organisation. They can vary greatly in both their nature and potential impact on an organisation’s infrastructure and data.

  1. Malicious insiders: employees or contractors who intentionally compromise an organisation for personal gain or other motives.
  2. Unintentional insiders: individuals who accidentally create vulnerabilities through carelessness or lack of awareness.
  3. Credential theft: attackers who obtain unauthorised access by stealing legitimate users’ credentials.
  4. Privilege misuse: employees who abuse their access rights to sensitive information or systems.
  5. Social engineering: attackers who manipulate employees into divulging confidential information or granting unauthorised access.
  6. Espionage: individuals who infiltrate an organisation to steal sensitive data, intellectual property, or trade secrets.
  7. Insider collusion: two or more insiders working together to compromise an organisation’s security.

Why are insider threats important to prevent?

of the organisations say they feel some degree of vulnerability to insider threats
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year-over-year increase in actionable insider threat incidents
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increase in the use of sophisticated insider techniques, to bypass organisations cyber security measures
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How can insider threats harm your Business?

Insider threats present a significant risk to businesses, impacting various aspects ranging from operations to reputation. Here’s how they can cause damage:

  1. Operational Disturbances: Insider threats can disrupt daily functions, causing delays in production or service delivery, reducing efficiency, and affecting customer satisfaction.

  2. Supply Chain Problems: Manipulation or theft of sensitive information by insiders can lead to delays, increased costs, and compromised quality within the supply chain.

  3. Financial Costs: The direct and indirect costs related to insider threats, including investigations, legal actions, fines, and loss of revenue, can have long-term impacts on profitability.

  4. Reputational Damage: Public knowledge of an insider threat can erode trust among customers, partners, and investors. Repairing this damage can be costly and time-consuming.

  5. Legal and Regulatory Issues: Non-compliance with regulations due to insider threats can lead to legal actions and fines, straining resources further.

  6. Strategic Risks: Exploitation of strategic information by insiders can undermine the organisation’s market position, giving competitors an unfair advantage.

  7. Human Resource Challenges: Insider threats can create internal turmoil, negatively affecting team morale, leading to higher turnover, and hindering recruitment.

In summary, insider threats are complex and can affect nearly every part of a business. The consequences extend beyond immediate financial loss to long-term strategic, reputational, and operational challenges. Robust security measures, employee training, and continuous monitoring are essential in mitigating these risks and ensuring the ongoing success of the organisation.

5 Signs Insider Risk Vulnerabilities Infographic (2)

How can you detect and prevent these insider threats?

Timely detection and prevention of insider threats are essential for safeguarding an organisation’s assets and maintaining a secure business environment. Being aware of the different indicators and implementing effective strategies can help minimise the risk of insider threats.

Indicators to Spot Insider Threats

  • Unusual or unauthorized access to sensitive data or systems
  • Anomalies in user behavior or access patterns
  • Attempts to bypass security controls or policies
  • Unexplained data transfers or suspicious communication
  • Signs of disgruntlement or potential insider collusion

Options Available to Prevent Insider Threats

  • Employee Training – Regularly educate employees on security best practices, the risks of insider threats, and the importance of maintaining a secure working environment.
  • Access Controls – Implement role-based access controls, ensuring that employees have the minimum necessary access to perform their job functions and regularly review access permissions.
  • Data Encryption – Encrypt sensitive data to protect it from unauthorized access, even if an insider manages to bypass other security measures.

How Signpost Six Can Help

Signpost Six supports the public and private sector internationally with holistic insider risk programmes. Composed of a team of experienced consultants with deep expertise in psychology, intelligence, insider risk and business, we support you in implementing appropriate countermeasures through our specialised offerings that you can find below.

Insider Risk Assessment

The first step in mitigating insider risk is to understand where you stand

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Step 2

Insider Risk Training & Awareness

Extensive range of insider risk training services for both individuals and entire organisations

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Step 4
Step 1

Insider Risk Programme

Build to establish proactive measures to prevent future Insider incidents

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Step 3

Continuous Evaluation & Improvement

We believe in long-term partnerships by offering ongoing support to all out clients

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Insider Risk Prevention & Management

We proactively identify, assess, and mitigate the risks that exist within your organisation. Leveraging our expertise in behavioural sciences and advanced technologies, we help you to understand the threat landscape from within. Our comprehensive insider risk management programme provides the necessary framework to prevent, detect, and respond to potential threats, safeguarding your business from detrimental impacts.

Signpost Six Academy

Cultivating a culture of awareness is at the heart of our Academy. Through bespoke training and education modules, we aim to enlighten your team about the nuances of insider incidents, fostering an environment where security becomes a shared responsibility. Our Academy is designed to empower your organisation from within, transforming knowledge into action and thereby enhancing your resilience against insider threats.


Unintentional insiders are often considered the most common type of insider threat. These individuals inadvertently create security vulnerabilities through carelessness, lack of awareness, or human error, potentially leading to data breaches or system compromises.

 Yes, there are various types of insider threats, including malicious insiders, unintentional insiders, credential theft, privilege misuse, social engineering, espionage, and insider collusion. These threats can differ significantly in their nature, intentions, and potential impact on an organisation.

Insider threats can cause significant harm to an organisation in several ways, such as:

  • Financial losses from data breaches, system downtime, or recovery efforts
  • Damage to reputation, leading to a loss of customers or business partnerships
  • Loss of sensitive data, including intellectual property or customer information
  • Violations of regulatory requirements, resulting in fines or legal penalties
  • Disruption of operations, impacting productivity and efficiency
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